The Murder of Daniel Shaver

I had never heard of Daniel Shaver, nor his brutal execution by former Mesa, Arizona police officer Philip Brailsford, until this morning when I was downloading nature photos for future Twitter posts and came across a link to the very disturbing video of Daniel Shaver, 26, crawling on his knees and begging the officers with their guns trained on him not to shoot. Shaver complies with the demands of the officers every time, which is why it’s hard to fathom why Brailsford, also 26 at the time, felt the need to warn the unarmed man that he would shoot him if he did not follow their commands. Shaver was not restrained, he was not handcuffed, he was not Maced, and he was not tag-teamed. He was shot. For no reason. (Though the officers – and apparently, the ‘justice’ system – believed that there was reason for Shaver to be murdered. He reached towards the waistband of his shorts.)

“Young man, you are not to move. You are to put your eyes down look down at the carpet you are to keep your fingers interlaced behind your head you are to keep your feet crossed,” Brailsford says. “If you move, we are going to consider that a threat, and we are going to deal with it and you may not survive it, do you understand me?”

“Yes sir,” Shaver says.


Brailsford then orders the woman to kneel, put her hands in the air and crawl towards officers. Officers then apparently handcuff her out of the view of the camera. Brailsford then orders Shaver to kneel, and yells for him to keep his legs crossed, to which Shaver replies, “I’m sorry.”

Shaver is then seen putting his hands behind his back. The officer yells, “Hands up in the air!,” and Shaver complies.

“You do that again we’re shooting you, do you understand?” the officer says.

“Please, do not shoot me,” Shaver is heard saying, his hands in the air.

“Then listen to my instructions!” the officer yells.

“I’m trying to just do what you say,” Shaver says.

“Don’t talk! Listen!” Brailsford yells. He orders Shaver to keep his hands up.

“Your hands go back in the small of your back or down, we are going to shoot you, do you understand me?” Brailsford yells.

“Yes sir,” Shaver says, sobbing.



Brailsford then orders Shaver to crawl towards him, to which Shaver again says, “Yes, sir,” as he cries. As Shaver inches forward, he is seen reaching toward the waistband of his shorts, and Brailsford opens fire. Brailsford said he fired his rifle because he believed Shaver was grabbing a handgun in his waistband. The detective investigating the shooting had agreed Shaver’s movement was similar to reaching for a pistol, but has said it also looked as though Shaver was pulling up his loose-fitting basketball shorts that had fallen down as he was ordered to crawl toward officers. The investigator noted he did not see anything that would have prevented officers from simply handcuffing Shaver as he was on the floor. 
 – CBS News


Why did the officers ask Shaver and his female companion to crawl on the carpeted hallway of the hotel in that way, rather than to have them lie there on their bellies and handcuff them from the rear? That’s the manner in which I always see the cops on Live PD, The First 48, and even COPS do it. So why did these officers not follow such procedures? Were they itching to kill someone that day, just not thinking straight, or were they simply incompetent? Apparently, Brailsford had not been a decent cop at all during his two years on the Mesa force for he had wracked up all types of violations before being fired for poor performance. That is a telling truth about the character of Philip Brailsford.
Brailsford claimed to be afraid – same as the officer who killed unarmed Philando Castile and got away with it – but how in Hell can an officer, armed with Mace, a billy club, a gun, and who knows what else, be afraid of a man crawling on his belly like a slug? What kind of sense does this make? It makes none at all to me, none whatsoever! Of course, the system is going to be on his side – cops do no wrong, even when they slaughter innocent civilians. They get a pass for murder same as those who serve in the military.

This is another reason why the jury system should be abolished. Twelve people without a bit of legal training deciding the fates of others? A judge I can understand, judges have legal backgrounds. Not cashiers, taxi drivers, engineers, teachers, librarians, and vet assistants – there is no way on earth I’d ever opt for a trial by jury. One would have be batshit insane to go for that. I’m certain that half the jury was made up of veterans or those with family members in the military – patriotic types who are always on the side of the cops.


At trial, the officer testified that he though the suspect was reaching for his gun, and that if he had a chance to do things over, he’d make the same decision again. In other words, he presented the classic defense. He was afraid, so he fired. I’ve written about this before. Juries time and again acquit frightened cops, regardless of whether the cop botched the situation or whether his fear was objectively reasonable. 


I wrote this after the Philando Castile verdict: Legally, it’s not enough for an officer to show that he was actually afraid for his life. He has to show that “a reasonably prudent person” would also have the same fear. Clever defense lawyers twist this standard into a line of argument that goes something like this: The officer was afraid, and he can explain to you the reasons why he was afraid. Therefore, it was reasonable that he was afraid. But real fear isn’t always reasonable fear. 
 
That’s especially true when the police — through their own incompetence — create their own fear. Philando Castile was shot even as he followed his killer’s instructions. Shaver died trying his best to comply with a highly unusual, complicated set of commands while under extreme duress. Scared cops still need to be competent cops, and members of the public shouldn’t face death because a police officer can’t keep his emotions in check. – National Review

Advertisements

Yes, British Racism Exists

 

On the evening of 22 April 1993, 18-year-old Stephen Lawrence left his uncle’s house in Plumstead, south-east London, with his friend Duwayne Brooks. As the two friends waited at a bus stop, Lawrence started crossing the road to see if the bus was coming. He didn’t make it to the other side. He was confronted by a gang of young white men around his age, who surrounded him as they approached. Lawrence was set upon, and stabbed repeatedly. Brooks fled, and Lawrence followed, running more than 100 metres before collapsing. He bled to death on the road.

A day after Lawrence’s death, a letter listing the names of the people who turned out to be the top suspects in the case was left in a telephone box near the bus stop. In the following months, that letter led to surveillance and arrests.

Two people were charged. But by the end of July 1993, all the charges against them had been dropped. The Metropolitan police had concluded that evidence from Brooks, the only witness to the crime, was not reliable.

Four years later, an inquest delivered a verdict of unlawful killing in an “unprovoked racist attack”. After an official representation to the Police Complaints Authority from Lawrence’s parents, the Kent police force was tasked with launching an investigation into the Met’s conduct, in March 1997. The result, nine months later, would find “significant weaknesses, omissions and lost opportunities” in the way the Met dealt with the investigation of Stephen Lawrence’s death.
There is much evidence to show that your life chances are impeded if you are black in Britain. Between 2010-11, the Department for Education found that a black schoolboy in England was three times more likely to be permanently excluded from school, compared to the whole school population. Black school leavers were less likely to be accepted into a high-ranking Russell Group university than their white counterparts. In 2009, a study by the Department for Work and Pensions found that applications for jobs to a number of prospective employers were not treated equally: applicants with white-sounding names were called to interview far more often than those with African- or Asian-sounding names. Despite this, many insist that any attempt to level the playing field is special treatment. – The Guardian

When I was a child, growing up on a council estate in the northeast of England, I imbibed enough of the background racial tensions of the late 1970s and 1980s to feel profoundly unwelcome in Britain. My right, not just to regard myself as a British citizen, but even to be in Britain, seemed contested. Despite our mother’s careful protection, the tenor of our times seeped through the concrete walls into our home and into my mind and into my siblings’ minds. Secretly, I harboured fears that as part of the group identified by chanting neo-Nazis, hostile neighbours and even television comedians as “them” we might be sent “back”. This, in our case, presumably meant “back” to Nigeria, a country of which I had only infant memories and a land upon which my youngest siblings had never set foot. To thousands of younger black and mixed-race Britons who, thankfully, cannot remember those decades, the racism of the 1970s and 1980s and the insecurities it bred in the minds of black are difficult to imagine or relate to.

But they are powerful memories for my generation. I was eight years old when the BBC finally cancelled The Black and White Minstrel Show. I have memories of my mother rushing across our living room to change television channels (in the days before remote controls) to avoid her mixed-race children being confronted by grotesque caricatures of themselves on prime-time television. I was 17 when the last of the touring blackface minstrel shows finally disappeared, having clung on for a decade performing in fading ballrooms on the decaying piers of Britain’s seaside towns. – David Olusoga

 

The Brexit referendum has put a spotlight on racial divides in Britain, and has led to a marked rise in racism that is making many black Britons feel like they are no longer welcome at home. The news of this impending election has added more intensity to the Brexit fallout black Britons have been dealing with since the referendum last June. But, Simon Woolley, director of Operation Black Vote (OBV), an organization that campaigns for racial justice in Britain, said the prime minister’s decision “was probably motivated more by Brexit EU politics more than any immediate domestic political considerations.” He added that over the next several weeks OBV would “fight for race equality and fight against xenophobia. We’ll engage in a late voter registration drive, hold hustings meetings in marginal seats, write a black political manifesto and hold a national meeting with major party leaders.”

Brexit has made many black people question their place in British society, and this pending vote may yet heighten this experience. Rikette, a popular jazz singer from Brixton, says that, “as a black Briton, Brexit has made me question just how British I am. This is something I have not had to think about before, and, due to the rise in racist abuse, this has made me feel a little more vulnerable in public spaces, especially on public transport.” Indeed, since Brexit was enacted the number of hate crimes recorded on public transit has increased. Zara Tewolde-Berhan, 24, a writer in London born to Eritrean parents, says “the message of Brexit is clear, it does not make me feel welcome.” And now with an election looming she says, “I feel like this was a rushed decision to call an election, I am so confused and uncertain about my future now, and I am worried what this will mean for black people in Britain.” As a young person who, like her age group, voted overwhelmingly to remain part of the EU, she says she fears that the economic effects of Brexit will have a disproportionate impact on black Britons.

 
“I feel that opportunities are now much slimmer as a Black Brit,” she says. Black and Asian graduates are twice as likely as white graduates to be unemployed. This is something Tewolde-Berhan experienced when she graduated from university and struggled to find a job. Black male graduates in London are twice as likely to be unemployed as their white counterparts; there was an unemployment rate 16 percent for black male graduates in London last year.

This is shocking considering that 44 percent of London’s 8.6 million people come from an ethnic minority. Nor is it just young black graduates that face such grim unemployment prospects. Across the board, black workers in Britain earn far less than their white counterparts with the same qualifications — at every educational level. According to research from the Trades Union Congress (TUC), a confederation of unions in Britain, there is a 23 percent pay gap between black and white workers. Their research also shows that black graduates earn £14.33 an hour while white graduates earn £18.63. – National Public Radio

The Brutal Lynching of Charles Lang & Ernest Green

The bodies of Green and Lang had been mutilated. “Their reproductive organs were cut off. Pieces of flesh had been jerked away from their bodies with pliers and one boy had a screw driver rammed down his throat so that it protruded from his neck.”

On October 6, 1942, fourteen year old African American teenagers Ernest Green and Charles Lang crossed paths with thirteen year old white girl Dorothy Martin on the side of Highway 45, just south of Shubuta, a small town in Clarke County, Mississippi.  A few hours after the encounter Charles Lang and Ernest Green were arrested for the attempted rape of Dorothy Martin.  Less than a week later, Green and Lang were abducted from the Clarke County Jail and brutally lynched.  Their bodies were hung from the notorious “Hanging Bridge” in Shubuta.

Authorities in Quitman and Shubuta alleged that they had arrested the boys after receiving a complaint of attempted rape from Dorothy Martin.  They asserted that Green and Lang had confessed that they had ‘waylaid’ Dorothy Martin and that Martin had escaped and fled to her home.  While most northern newspapers ran stories recounting these allegations, African American newspapers ran stories that expressed doubt about the authenticity and veracity of the charges against the boys. Publications such as The Chicago Defender soon printed follow up articles reporting that Green and Lang had startled or frightened Dorothy Martin, who then fled home to vengeful parents.

A substantially different story was uncovered when, in the weeks and months following the lynching, investigators working for the NAACP and African American newspapers travelled to Clarke County.  On the day in question, Dorothy Martin was walking home from school and came upon Ernest Green and Charles Lang scrounging scrap rubber and scrap metal near a bridge on Highway 45.  She had stopped to talk or perhaps to play with Green and Lang who she knew because they were neighbors.  A passing motorist saw the three young people together and either drove into town and told the sheriff that he saw Green and Lang attempting to rape Dorothy Martin, or told Dorothy’s father that Green and Lang were harassing or chasing his daughter.  A few hours later, either at the behest of Mr. Martin, or acting upon the story of the motorist, Deputy Sheriff Ed McClendon arrested Green and Lang at their homes. – Northeastern University School of Law

“THEY GOT A FAIR AND SQUARE HEARING. . .”


“First off,” said the Sheriff, “The papers got the ages wrong, sayin[‘] they were 14. Mr. Simpson tells me the Green boy worked for him ten years ago, and that he was yearlin’ age then. You better put it down. Them N……rs wasn’t 14, They were maybe 16 to 18.

“All right. We arrested them N……rs—Charlie Lang and Ernest Green—a week ago last Tuesday. We went down to Shubuta and got ’em on complaint of a 13-year-old girl. We brought ’em up here and they got a fair-and-square hearing before Justice of the Peace W. E. Eddings and they confessed to attempted rape.”

“Do those boys know what attempted rape is?”


“It was this way,” said the Sheriff. “They tol’ us they waited for the girl at the bridge, knowin’ she came that way from school. One N……r waited under the bridge. The other hid beside the road. When the girl came along, this Green jumped out at her from beside the road.

“You scared me, boy,” the girl said.

“I’m gonna do worse than that,” the N……r said and grabbed for her. She ran away. Green said he was planning to grab her and bring her down under the bridge to the other N……r.”

“Did Green touch the girl?”

“Why, no. A car came along and it scared him. Like I said, the girl run away.”

“And that’s the story the boys told?”

 
 
“WE BEEN SEARCHIN’, BUT FOLKS WON’T TALK”

“How do the townspeople feel about the lynching?”


“We’re all for law and order here,” the Sheriff said. “But, of course, we got some good folks who get kind of wild. Them N……rs is gettin’ uppity, you know.”

“Has anything been done to catch the lynchers?”

“Why, sure. We been searching, and you know the Governor sent down some of his State Guard. And now the FBI is around asking questions. But you know how it is, people don’t like to tell on their friends.”

“Do you thing [sic], if the FBI turned up some evidence, or maybe you did, you could get a Grand Jury to indict and a jury to convict?”

“That’s a tough question” said the Sheriff. “I really wouldn’t know. Feeling runs high against N…..rs sometimes.”

“Have you any idea, Sheriff what can be done to prevent things like this in the future?”

“Why, no,” the Sheriff said. “I don’t think I have.” – StrangeFruitAndSpanishMoss

In 1918, nearly a century ago and just five weeks after Armistice Day, a white mob hanged four young blacks—two brothers and two sisters, both pregnant—from its rails. This was several days after their white boss turned up dead. “People says they went down there to look at the bodies,” a local woman recalled fifty years later, “and they still see those babies wiggling around in the bellies after those mothers was dead.” When the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—an organization less than ten years old at the time— demanded an investigation, Mississippi governor Theodore Bilbo told them to go to hell.

 
Twenty-four years later, white vigilantes hanged Ernest Green and Charlie Lang—fourteen and fifteen respectively—after a white girl accused them of attempted rape. Newspapers nationwide ran photographs of the two boys’ corpses and that same river bridge. “Shubuta Bridge’s Toll Stands at Six Lynch Victims,” the Chicago Defender announced. “Some place the figure at eight,” the prominent black newspaper continued, “counting two unborn babies.” In the wake of the latest atrocity, the Defender dispatched a black journalist to the nation’s new lynching capital. In Meridian, a small city forty miles north, the undercover reporter asked a black taxi driver for a ride to Shubuta. “No sir,” the cabbie replied. “I’d just as soon go to hell as to go there.”

Local whites proved just as blunt. A white undercover investigator sent to Clarke County in November 1942 spoke with a local farmer who bragged of his town’s most infamous landmark. “It’s not in use anymore as a bridge,” he boasted. “We just keep it for stringing up [n*****s].” Whites had to “mob” blacks from time to time, he explained, to keep them in line. “We had a case of that here just recently,” he added, “two fourteen-year-old boys….We put four up during the last war.” – 
Time
 

Asians: The Biggest White Supremacists

If you think the biggest White racialists on the planet are Caucasians, you are dead wrong. Asians are actually the worst White racialists ever, and I have the facts to prove it. This has always been a firm opinion of mine but I have learned through my research that it’s totally true.) Asians, particularly Asian females, worship Whites and desire to be White so strongly that one of the reasons they prefer White males is to have children who will be as White as possible, though more often than not, they come out looking Asian (and then get rejected by their White fathers, who truly desire children who look like themselves).

Asian people love Whites, but Asian women especially worship the White race. I cannot count how many Asian women I have seen in the company of Whites, or with a White husband, in my area – and I do not live in a large city nor on the West Coast where a large number of Asians reside. Watch any Asian movie and you’ll find Asian women wearing light-colored contact lenses, with lightened hair, or even with eyes made less Asiatic via eyelid surgery! They also use skin lightening creams to death in Asian countries (though many African and Caribbean nations are just as bad with skin lightening).

There are other non Whites who are obsessed with looking and/or marrying White, who want to have children with Whites so that they are light-skinned’ with ‘good hair’. There’s a family acquaintance of ours who had two daughters by a White man, and married a Mexican – the adults claimed he married her for his green card, but they’re still together today, which means the marriage has lasted at least 30 years now.  This woman was fascinated with mixed people, so it’s no surprise all of her kids are mixed. I have actually had Black women tell me that they wished they had my skin or eye color, or hair that’s as thick as mine (I’m not even mixed) – even White women have admired my complexion.

At any rate, I do not believe that my light skin makes me superior to others. There was a time when I used to wish that my complexion was actually darker, more like caramel or even milk chocolate, with that smooth, almost pore-free look to it that no other ethnic group seems to have. I do not think that the White race is better than others, nor do I believe that White skin, hair texture, features, that they are the most good looking race.

I am attracted to all sorts of men, not only White men. I happen to be in a relationship with a White man at this time, but I have dated Black as well as Latino men in the past. I don’t believe that one race is any better than another.

Asian women do. I have read countless posts by Asian women in relationships – or desiring to be in one – with White men. They are always extolling the reasons why White men are better than Asians. Only a person who believes in White supremacy would do something like that. There are dozens of videos of Asian women on YouTube doing the same as the writers of the social media posts, who are displaying their internalized racism and self-hate while declaring how White men are the ‘best’ while putting down Asian men.  It’s truly sad.

The United States is not a white nation. The United States never was a white nation. It was built on the backs of people of color, and literally exists because of the genocide of native Americans. If you believe in a separatist state for whites only then please get out of America and go to a country where white people haven’t profited because of the exploitation of PoCs. Oh wait that doesn’t exist does it?


This is a post I discovered on Reddit last week whilst perusing various subreddits for interesting tidbits from which to glean material for my blog, and I decided to write about the world’s ‘Whitest’ nations – which America never was and never will be.

From my research, there are countries in Central & South America that are ‘Whiter’ than the US and even many European nations. Argentina, for example, is around 97% White, compared with the Netherlands, which is only about 93% White. Despite large populations of ‘brown’ peoples like Turks, Arabs, Asians, and Africans, Europe is still predominantly ‘White’ – even Britain, France, Germany, and Sweden are countries where the inhabitants are mainly of Caucasian origin. Ethnically, Arabs and Turks are usually classified as ‘White’ though most members of the Alt Right may beg to differ.

Greece is nearly 100% ethnically Greek, which makes it one of the Whitest nations on earth and also one of the few countries that has a homogeneous population, more so than Hungary, Poland, Finland, and even Japan. Korea (both North as well as South), Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Zambia, and Zimbabwe are also extremely homogeneous, with hardly any ethnic diversity other than small communities of Chinese in the Koreas, and various tribes in the African countries. Kiribati is nearly 99% Micronesian (Asian) and Jordan is nearly 99% Arab. Togo is nearly 100% African. – InfoPlease

The United Kingdom, in spite of London and a few other big cities boasting diverse populations, is far ‘Whiter’ than the United States. For example, Blacks make up 2% of the inhabitants of Britain, compared with almost 13% in America, whilst the White population is around 90% versus 75% (US). Why are White Separatist groups ranting about the White race vanishing from America, why are they raging about America being ‘taken over’ by brown people and non Christians?  While it is true that the most interracial couples one sees are usually White men with Asian females and/or Black men with White women, the indisputable fact is that most people choose to marry within their own race/ethnic group. Whites actually marry Hispanics at higher rates than they do Asians, probably due to many Hispanics being of White origin.

Marriages between Blacks and Whites are the lowest of any groups, which reveals the deep cultural bias that yet exists in America towards anything to do with Whites and Blacks being together period.

President Trump has, of course, stirred the shit and turned back the racial progress we had seen under former President Obama’s rule. Sure, memberships in various White Supremacist groups grew during Obama’s presidency, but it’s gotten worse since Trump ascended to the White House. The guy is even trying to deny his German origins, possibly because his family had Nazi ties in the Old Country. Who the hell knows? His own father was arrested at a KKK rally and both papa and son were sued for racial discrimination in their housing. I never gave two shits about the guy back in the 80s, when he was all over the news, nor during his stint as a Reality TV star. I don’t give a rat’s ass about him now.

White Separatists have a choice – they can either stay in this country, which is yet predominantly one of their race & skin color & ethnic group – or they can flee now for the nations that are far more White than the US has ever been or will ever be.

Liberalism is Killing The West

Being Conservative is bad but there are ways in which Liberals are just as terrible, if not worse. With a Conservative, you know where you stand if you’re a woman, a homosexual, a minority, or a non Christian. With Liberals, you’re not sure just what to expect. White, affluent, well educated Liberals are the worst of the bunch – typical snobbish elites much in the same way as their Conservative foes.

Many of the beliefs that Liberals hold are simply too naive as far as I am concerned. One of these is that people are morally good which is not true in my opinion. People are inherently bad, and when push comes to shove, they will take the evil route over the heavenly road nearly every time, if there is something in it for them especially. I don’t know how many times I have read or heard about a felon being released from prison, only to do something bad and get sent back. It’s like rapists, pedophiles, abusers, and murderers. Most of those kinds of people never change their wicked ways, despite their professed love for humanity as ‘born again Christians’ and ‘converted Muslims’. I personally know of men who served time in prison for killing someone, only to be sent back for the same type of crime!

Liberals will state emphatically that prison does nothing to rehabilitate the criminal. I say it does. I know that if I had to spend time in prison for a crime and get released, that I sure as hell wouldn’t do something to be sent back. I know enough about prisons to never want to be sent to one, which is why I refrain from engaging in criminal activity or being in the company of such types. Liberals also claim that the Death Penalty does not work and they campaign against it ceaselessly as much as they strive for the Welfare state and push for immigration and fight against those who believe that same sex marriages and relationships are a sin.

Liberals believe that the Government should take care of its citizens. This is why many European countries have such high tax rates, to enable their Welfare states for those who won’t work or who do not make a lot of money. I don’t believe that the Government should give handouts to people who are able-bodied and sound of mind – they are able to work yet are too lazy, and know that they can live off of programs such as WIC, Section 8 & HUD, Medicaid, and food stamps. Many illegal aliens receive WIC and food stamps and Medicaid for their US born children, which benefits the parents too, who were oftentimes not born in this country. (I know because I used to work for Walmart and had to help them with their WIC vouchers, and also saw them using EBT cards. When I worked at CVS Pharmacy, I saw their Medicaid cards.)

Individuals should be responsible for their own lives. If you are mentally stable and physically in good health, then why shouldn’t you be able to obtain employment? The Government should not be responsible for taking care of anyone, nor should hard working, tax paying citizens. If you lay around and have three, six, or nine children that you can’t afford to take care of, whose fault is that? If you want to sit on the couch, watch TV, and drink one 40 oz. (now 42 oz.) after another, but you don’t have enough money to buy food, whose fault is that? If you quit school in the 11th grade and now must sling burgers at Wendy’s, work the register at McDonald’s, make burritos at Taco Bell, or wrap sandwiches at Subway, whose fault is that? It’s not the fault of the Government, that’s for damn sure!

Liberalism is killing the West. Every European nation and other Western nations like America that are heavily liberal are suffering for it, and they shall continue to do so unless both sides – Cons and Libs – can meet each other halfway on the issues that concern both groups.

Liberalism, political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. Liberals typically believe that government is necessary to protect individuals from being harmed by others, but they also recognize that government itself can pose a threat to liberty. As the revolutionary American pamphleteer Thomas Paine expressed it in Common Sense (1776), government is at best “a necessary evil.” Laws, judges, and police are needed to secure the individual’s life and liberty, but their coercive power may also be turned against him. The problem, then, is to devise a system that gives government the power necessary to protect individual liberty but also prevents those who govern from abusing that power.

The problem is compounded when one asks whether this is all that government can or should do on behalf of individual freedom. Some liberals—the so-called neoclassical liberals, or libertarians—answer that it is. Since the late 19th century, however, most liberals have insisted that the powers of government can promote as well as protect the freedom of the individual. According to modern liberalism, the chief task of government is to remove obstacles that prevent individuals from living freely or from fully realizing their potential. Such obstacles include poverty, disease, discrimination, and ignorance. The disagreement among liberals over whether government should promote individual freedom rather than merely protect it is reflected to some extent in the different prevailing conceptions of liberalism in the United States and Europe since the late 20th century. In the United States liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal program of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, whereas in Europe it is more commonly associated with a commitment to limited government and laissez-faire economic policies (see below Contemporary liberalism).

 

Conservatism, political doctrine that emphasizes the value of traditional institutions and practices.

 
Conservatism is a preference for the historically inherited rather than the abstract and ideal. This preference has traditionally rested on an organic conception of society—that is, on the belief that society is not merely a loose collection of individuals but a living organism comprising closely connected, interdependent members. Conservatives thus favour institutions and practices that have evolved gradually and are manifestations of continuity and stability. Government’s responsibility is to be the servant, not the master, of existing ways of life, and politicians must therefore resist the temptation to transform society and politics. This suspicion of government activism distinguishes conservatism not only from radical forms of political thought but also from liberalism, which is a modernizing, antitraditionalist movement dedicated to correcting the evils and abuses resulting from the misuse of social and political power. In The Devil’s Dictionary (1906), the American writer Ambrose Bierce cynically (but not inappropriately) defined the conservative as “a statesman who is enamored of existing evils, as distinguished from the Liberal, who wishes to replace them with others.” Conservatism must also be distinguished from the reactionary outlook, which favours the restoration of a previous, and usually outmoded, political or social order.
 

Beautiful European Cities

I have compiled a photo gallery of several European cities, some of which I have visited at least once, and others I hope to travel to by 2025. How many can you name just by the pictures alone?